Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna
Euskal Herria (Basque Country) is divided politically
between the French and Spanish states. It is composed
of seven provinces: three under French administration,
Iparraldea or Northern Basque Country, and four
under Spanish administration, Hegoaldea or Southern
Basque Country. In 1901 the founder of the Basque
Nationalist Party, Sabino Arana, coined the term,
Euzkadi(also spelled Euskadi) to describe a hypothetical
Basque confederated state comprised of the seven
Basque provinces. Basque Fatherland and Liberty
a.k.a Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) was founded
in 1959 with the aim of creating an independent
homeland in Spain's Basque region. It has a muted
commitment to Marxism.
Chiefly bombings and assassinations of Spanish
Government officials, especially security and
military forces, politicians, and judicial figures.
In response to French operations against the group,
ETA also has targeted French interests. Finances
its activities through kidnappings, robberies,
and extortion. ETA has killed over 800 persons
since it began lethal attacks in the early 1960s;
responsible for murdering 13 persons in 1997.
Unknown; may have hundreds of members, plus supporters.
Location/Area of Operation
Operates primarily in the Basque autonomous regions
of northern Spain and southwestern France, but
also has bombed Spanish and French interests elsewhere.
ETA has established relations with the Irish Republican
Army, and with the Algerian Islamic Group, for
which it has provided training in the production
of explosives, guerrilla warfare and urban terrorism.
ETA has obtained weapons, safe houses, and other
logistics support from Islamic networks in Europe.
ETA groups may receive training in Iranian and
Lebanese camps. It has received training at various
times in the past in Libya, Lebanon, and Nicaragua.
Some ETA members allegedly have received sanctuary